Aneuploid Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) and Circulating Tumor-derived Endothelial Cell (CTEC)


Tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) make up the lining of neovasculature in the tumor microenvironment (Hida and Klagsbrun, 2005 Cancer Res 65:2507). Following shedding into peripheral blood, tumor cells (TCs) and TECs turn into circulating TCs (CTCs) and circulating TECs (CTECs), respectively. TCs/CTCs and TECs/CTECs all harbor cytogenetic abnormality of aneuploid chromosomes (Lin et al., 2017 Sci Rep 7:9789). Aneuploid CTCs and CTECs, constituting a unique category of cellular circulating tumor biomarkers, have an interplay in circulation to promote tumorigenesis, neovascularization, disease progression as well as cancer metastasis. In the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, some CD31- tumor cells can be transdifferentiated into CD31+ tumor-derived endothelial cells (Lin, 2020 Cells 9:1539).



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Subtraction Enrichment (SE) to Enrich Circulating Rare Cells


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i•FISH® to Identify Diverse Subtypes of CTCs and CTECs


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i•FISH® to Comprehensively Co-detect and Characterize Diverse Subtypes of CTCs and CTECs 




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Both aneuploid CTCs and CTECs can be classified into diverse subtypes upon degree of aneuploidy, tumor marker expression and cell morphology. Each subtype possesses a distinct clinical significance, such as tumor progression, therapy resistance and cancer relapse, etc... iFISH-identified CTCs and CTECs are available for subsequent NGS-based single cell analyses. 



Images of CTCs and CTECs Identified by i•FISH® 



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Flow Chart of SE-i•FISH®



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