Aneuploid Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) and Circulating Tumor-derived Endothelial Cell (CTEC)

Tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) make up the lining of neovasculature in the tumor microenvironment (Hida and Klagsbrun, 2005 Cancer Res 65:2507). Following shedding into peripheral blood, tumor cells (TCs) and TECs turn into circulating TCs (CTCs) and circulating TECs (CTECs), respectively. TCs/CTCs and TECs/CTECs all harbor cytogenetic abnormality of aneuploid chromosomes (Lin et al., 2017 Sci Rep 7:9789). Aneuploid CTCs and CTECs, constituting a unique category of cellular circulating tumor biomarkers, have an interplay in circulation to promote tumorigenesis, neovascularization, disease progression as well as cancer metastasis. In the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, some CD31- tumor cells can be transdifferentiated into CD31+ tumor-derived endothelial cells (Lin, 2020 Cells 9:1539).


Subtraction Enrichment (SE) to Enrich Circulating Rare Cells



i•FISH® to Identify Diverse Subtypes of CTCs and CTECs



i•FISH® to Comprehensively Co-detect and Characterize Diverse Subtypes of CTCs and CTECs 


Both aneuploid CTCs and CTECs can be classified into diverse subtypes upon degree of aneuploidy, tumor marker expression and cell morphology. Each subtype possesses a distinct clinical significance, such as tumor progression, therapy resistance and cancer relapse, etc... iFISH-identified CTCs and CTECs are available for subsequent NGS-based single cell analyses. 

SE-i•FISH® (NC) effectively identifies and comprehensively co-detects viable and necrotic CTCs、CTECs


SE-i•FISH®(NC) is able to effectively enrich, detect, characterize and subcategorize various necrotic and viable CTCs and CTECs. Each subtype of CTCs and CTECs possesses distinct utility in anti-cancer drug development, translational research and clinical practice regarding risk stratification, rapid evaluation of therapeutic effects, real-time monitoring of treatment-resistance, and detection of post-therapeutic minimal residual disease (MRD).

Images of CTCs and CTECs Identified by i•FISH® 



Images of Viable and Necrotic CTCs and CTECs Identified by i•FISH® (NC)


Flow Chart of SE-i•FISH®



Cytelligen, the real solutions for circulating rare cells……

  • Cytelligen, Inc.
  • 7094 Miratech Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, U.S.A.
  • Telephone: +1 (858) 585-3537 Fax: +1 (858) 509-9209
  • Email:
  • © 2024 All Rights Reserved